Thermo-CVD Technology

What is Thermo-CVD

The THERMO-CVD process is an advanced thermal process for plastic waste treatment and consists of two main stages. In the first stage, plastic waste is thermally decomposed in the absence of air into organic gases at optimized conditions. In the second stage, the organic gases are transformed into solid carbon and hydrogen either via non-catalytic thermolysis or catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes.

Read more

Carbon black (in case of non-catalytic thermolysis) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (in case of catalytic chemical vapor deposition) are the two types of solid carbon from the process. The both types of solid carbon are manufacturing additives for an array of products, including batteries, plastic/resin composites and coatings. Hydrogen from the process is a strategic fuel for the upcoming energy transition needed to achieve net zero targets. Currently, carbon additives and hydrogen are mainly manufactured from natural gas or other fossil resources. The THERMO-CVD process uses plastic waste instead. In this sense, the technology defossilizes supply chain as the products from plastic waste displace those made from newly mined non-renewable resources.

THERMO-CVD technology breaking down mixed plastics into gases that are further converted into hydrogen a low carbon fuel and solid carbon products such as carbon nanotubes via a catalytic process and carbon black via a thermolysis process.


Polyolefins (polyethylene and propylene) are excellent plastics for making carbon nanotubes. Shopping bags, milk containers, bottle caps, trays and other domestic utensils are made from polyolefins.

Flexible packaging

The types of flexible plastic packaging include bags, pouches, sachets, squeezable containers, films and wraps. Has diverse polymer composition. Apart from polyolefins, contains polyamides, polyesters, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl alcohol and others.

Marine plastic litter

Any types of plastic goods can end up in the ocean: straws, single-use utensils, packaging, bottles, labels, fishing nets, etc. In natural environment, marine litter disintegrates into microplastics posing ecotoxicity risks.

Origin of Thermo-CVD

The technology has been intensively studied in Nanyang Technological University (NTU, Singapore) since 2015 with the main goal of improving the economy of plastic waste recycling and making waste processing more competitive. NTU researchers have conducted proof of concept studies, technical feasibility studies, and life cycle assessment studies using various plastics. Realizing the potential of THERMO-CVD process, our company licensed core intellectual property from NTU in 2021 for further development and deployment at larger scale.

Selected scientific publications about THERMO-CVD:

  1. Veksha A., Wang Y., Foo J.W., Naruse I., Lisak G. Defossilization and decarbonization of hydrogen production using plastic waste: Temperature and feedstock effects during thermolysis stage. Journal of Hazardous Materials 452 (2023) 131270.
  2. Veksha A., Ahamed A., Wu X.Y., Liang L., Chan W.P., Giannis A., Lisak G. Technical and environmental assessment of laboratory scale approach for sustainable management of marine plastic litter. Journal of Hazardous Materials 421 (2022) 126717.
  3. Veksha A., Ke Y., Moo J.G.S., Oh W.-D., Ahamed A., Chen W.Q., Weerachanchai P., Giannis A., Lisak G. Processing of flexible plastic packaging waste into pyrolysis oil and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction. Journal of Hazardous Materials 387 (2020) 121256.
  4. Ahamed A., Veksha A., Yin K., Weerachanchai P., Giannis A., Lisak G. Environmental impact assessment of converting flexible packaging plastic waste to pyrolysis oil and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 390 (2020) 121449.
  5. Veksha A., Giannis A., Chang V.W.-C. Conversion of non-condensable pyrolysis gases from plastics into carbon nanomaterials: Effects of feedstock and temperature. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 124 (2017) 16-24.